Today, I want you to imagine your daily commute as a brisk
Just down the road is a fresh food market too.
The air is clean and clear.
Theres just one snag
You have to walk by streets coated with horse manure.
This was the reality of anyone living in the 19th century.
Some 20 million foals trundled up and down the streets of North
America and Europe alone.
A gallon of urine and 50 pounds of manure a single stallion
could produce that in a days work.
The stench must have been unbearable. To say nothing of diseases
spread by flies bred in horse dung.
Thankfully, its not something you have to deal with today.
The family car revolutionised our daily commute and grocery run.
And its made cities much larger than one with a transport system
built on horses ever could.
But not every outcome has been positive.
Cars eliminated methane emissions in cities, but they introduced
ozone-ripping carbon monoxide. And car accidents replaced injuries
from bucking and kicking horses.
But it does show that disruption rarely unfolds without
No matter where it happens, or on what scale, change always
produces winners and losers.
Often times, it is both necessary and welcome.
But its rarely inevitable.
In hindsight, its easy to assume the transition from horses to
cars took place overnight and that it was met with broad approval.
But that couldnt be further from the truth.
In fact, this process played out over the course of half a
century, introducing as many problems at it solved.
After all, nothing takes place in a vacuum. Its impossible to
upend industries without destroying the livelihood of both people
Road sweepers, carriage drivers and breeders suddenly found
themselves out of work as the horse was displaced.
But it also paved the way for the biggest explosion of urban
development in human history.
Now, some 120 years following the four-wheeled takeover, we find
ourselves at another inflection point.
This fight promises to be fiercer than any before it. But,
unlike the automobile, its unlikely this challenger will need 50
years to displace its competitor.
In fact, just this week, it landed the first blow
Blockchain goes mainstream
A landmark event took place this week that could overhaul the
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